Cynthia R. Cohen, Ph.D. 

Cynthia R. Cohen, Ph.D.

Local Knowledge with a National Presence. Dr. Cynthia Cohen specializes in jury research, trial strategies, and settlement decision-making. Harvesting knowledge of the local venue through jury studies, she applies scientific methods for jury selection predictors and develops themes with jury appeal to help trial lawyers win major complex cases across the country. As a past President of the American Society of Trial Consultants, she has a vast network to support trials in any venue.

Credible Research and Communication Insight. Dr. Cohen’s education includes psychology degrees at UCLA and the University of Southern California. She taught research design to clinical psychology graduate students and communication courses for business professionals. Her curiosity led to collaboration with Dr. Paul Ekman in teaching lawyers about micro-expressions and lying behavior. Completing the “Mediating the Litigated Case” program at Pepperdine School of Law increased her insight in preparing trial teams for mediation. With 25 plus years of trial consulting experience, she consistently spots the issues relevant to jurors.

Leadership and CLE. Cynthia Cohen contributes to the world of psychology and law. A Vice Chair of the American Bar Association, Section of Litigation, Trial Practice Committee, Dr. Cohen organizes creative, leading edge CLE programs. She chaired the Los Angeles Regional Workshop – Closing Arguments that Rock. Leading the Membership Division, she was instrumental in hosting the Committee’s first annual diversity reception in the Chambers of the Hon. Ruben Castillo at the Federal Courthouse in Chicago. Dr. Cohen won five ABA Section of Litigation awards including the best theme adaptation for the Trial Practice Committee. She helped launch the Products Liability Committee’s first annual Food & Supplements conference at Coca Cola World Headquarters in Atlanta. As a member of the ABA Section of Litigation's Task Force on the Image of the Profession, she designed programs at the USC Annenberg School and the University of Texas (Law and Journalism Schools). She works with the LACBA Trial Advocacy Program in teaching trial skills. Dr. Cohen is sought after to speak at bar associations and comment on jury behavior.

2013 CLE Programs

April 25, 2013. Shave Haircut or Total Makeover: The Reality of Trial Witness Preparation, Section of Litigation Annual Conference, Chicago, IL.

April 25, 2013. 12 Sure Ways to Lose a Trial, Section of Litigation Annual Conference, Chicago, IL.

April 26, 2013. Cameras are in the Courts, Now What? Ethical Issues for Lawyers, Section of Litigation Annual Conference, Chicago, IL. (Program chair).

2012 CLE Programs

October 26, 2012. Best Practices for Trial in Employment Cases, CalCPA Education Foundation, San Francisco, CA.

June 11, 2012. Voir Dire and Jury Selection: Who will Decide the Case? ABTL Nuts and Bolts program, San Diego, CA.

April 20, 2012. Hold'em or Fold'em: What Online Jury Studies Say about Trying Your Case. ABA Section of Litigation Annual Conference, Washington, DC.

April 12, 2012. Can You Spot a Liar? U.S. District Court for the Southern District of California, District Conference. San Diego, CA.

March 15, 2012. Hindsight Bias – What is It and How Do You Neutralize It? Defense Research Institute, Trial Tactics Seminar, Las Vegas, NV.

February 15, 2012. How Closing Arguments Influence Deliberations. ABA Section of Litigation, Trial Practice Committee Los Angeles Regional Meeting, Los Angeles, CA.

January 27, 2012. How to Make Insurance Companies Look Bad in Front of a Jury and How to Make Them Look Good. Orange County Bar Association, Santa Ana, CA.

Education

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, Ph.D., Educational Psychology and Annenberg School of Communication, 1984. Dissertation: Communication Skills and Cognitive Processes in Productively Reducing Uncertainty in Ambiguous Instructional Messages.

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA, M.S., Counseling Psychology, 1979. Master's topic: Effective Leadership in Small Groups.

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES, B.A., Psychology, 1977. Thesis: Masculine/Feminine Differences in Aggressiveness and Assertiveness.

HONORS: Educare Fellow (1981-1982), California State Fellow (1978-81), USC Education Alumni Award (1978).

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Professional Affiliations

American Bar Association

— Litigation Section

  • Intellectual Property Committee
  • Trial Practice Committee, Vice Chair (2007-present)
  • Products Liability Committee, Membership Co-Chair (2004-2011)
  • Image of the Profession Task Force, Member (2004-2006)
  • Corporate Counsel Committee
  • Securities Litigation Committee

American Psychological Association

— Division 15: Educational Psychology

— Division 41: American Psychology-Law Society

— Division 46: Media Psychology

American Society of Trial Consultants

  • President (2009-2010)
  • President-Elect and Annual Conference Chair (2008-2009)
  • Executive Committee (2007-2010)
  • Pro Bono Publico and Awards Committee Board Liaison (2006-2008)

Association of Business Trial Lawyers

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Seminars and Presentations

Past Seminars:

October 2011. Ethical Considerations for Social Media. ABA Section of Litigation, Women in Products Liability Regional Meeting, Nashville, TN.

June 2011. How to try Internet cases and the profile of the ideal juror in an e-commerce case (moderator). 8th Annual Stanford E-Commerce Best Practices Conferences, Stanford Law School, Palo Alto, CA.

April 2011. Strategies for Success as a Female Litigator. International Association of Defense Counsel, Product Liability & Diversity Committees webinar.

April 2011. Why Can't I Tweet? Proper and Improper Use of Technology in the Courtroom. ABA Section of Litigation Annual Meeting, Miami, FL.

March 2011. Biases and Assumptions Based on Gender, Race and National Origin: Change the Mindset of Judges, Juries, Clients and Law Firms, WLALA Annual Litigators Forum, Los Angeles, CA.

November 2010. Trial Skills: Technology in the Courtroom and in Mediation. ABA Section of Litigation, Products Liability Committee, Women in Products Liability 11th Annual Meeting, New York, NY.

October 2010. The Heart and Soul of Your Case: Crafting a Winning Theme, Enright Inn of Court, San Diego, CA.

October 2010. Jury Selection Workshop. Los Angeles County Bar, Trial Advocacy Program.

September 2010. CSI Effect: Demeanor, Deception & Credibility in Handling Scientific Evidence. DNA Awareness Educational Forum & Awards Luncheon (ninth annual). LA County District Attorney's Criminal Justice Institute, California State University, Los Angeles.

August 2010. The Heart and Soul of Your Case: Crafting a Winning Theme, ABA Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

April 2010. How to Win Your Case - Developing a Compelling Trial Theme. ABA Section of Litigation Annual Meeting, New York, NY.

February 2010. Demeanor, Deception, and Credibility. Forensic Expert Witness Association Annual Conference, La Jolla, CA.

October 2009. See It, Hear It, Feel It, Sense It! Handling Trial Themes in Difficult Cases (moderator). 10th Anniversary Women in Products Liability Subcommittee Program, ABA Section of Litigation, Products Liability Committee, WIPL, Chicago, IL.

June 2009. Lawyers in Your Living Room: Effects on Jurors. ASTC Annual Conference. Atlanta, GA.

June 2009. Evaluating Truthfulness (Three hour workshop with The Paul Ekman Group). ASTC Annual Conference. Atlanta, GA.

May 2009. Anatomy of a Bellwether Case: Nicaraguan Workers vs. Dole Food Co. ABA Section of Litigation Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA.

February 2009. Anatomy of a Bellwether Case: Nicaraguan Workers vs. Dole Food Co. ABA Section of Litigation, Corporate Counsel Committee, Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.

February 2009. Demeanor, Deception & Credibility. International Right of Way Association, Costa Mesa, CA.

September 2008. David vs. Goliath: Jurors' Perceptions of Trial Lawyers and Their Clients. ABA Section of Litigation, Products Liability Committee, Chemical Regional CLE Workshop, Mass, Class or Pass - Making Strategic Decisions in the Big Chemical Case, hosted by DuPont, Wilmington, DE.

July 2008. What You Can Learn from Mock Juries. Marketing Research Association Conference, Loyola University, Westchester, CA.

June 2008. Bigger than Me! Gaining Recognition for ASTC's Pro Bono Teams Across the Country (moderator). American Society of Trial Consultants 27th Annual Conference, Chicago, IL.

January 2008. In the Minds of Jurors. Long Beach and Torrance Inns of Court Joint Presentation, Long Beach, CA.

September 2007. Who Makes the Cut: Jury Selection on the Cutting Edge. ABA Section of Litigation, Products Liability Committee, Chemical Regional CLE Workshop, The Chemical Products Liability Trial: Winning At Every Stage, hosted by DuPont, Wilmington, DE.

June 2007. Closing Arguments Boston Style — Can you Present a Close Like the Lawyers on Boston Legal? ABA Tort Trial & Insurance Practice Section. ABA National Conference for the Minority Lawyer, Boston, MA.

June 2007. My Cup Runneth Over - Rewards, Recognition & Return on Investment from Pro Bono Cases. American Society of Trial Consultants 26th Annual Conference, Long Beach, CA.

April 2007. Different Venues, Different Verdicts. ABA Section of Litigation Annual Meeting, San Antonio, TX.

November 2006. Presenting the FDA Defense in Light of Changing Juror Perspectives. ABA Section of Litigation, Products Liability Committee, 2006 Pharmaceutical Regional CLE Workshop: Current Issues in Pharmaceutical Litigation & Policy, hosted by Schering-Plough Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ.

June 2006. Justice or Injustice in America: The ABA Section of Litigation's Task Force on Image of the Profession Dialogues Texas Style. Program chair and moderator for joint program for the ABA Section of Litigation Task Force on Image of the Profession, The American Society of Trial Consultants, The University of Texas School of Law, and the University of Texas Journalism School, Eidman Courthouse, Austin, TX.

April 2006. I'm not a Lawyer, but I Play One on TV. ABA Section of Litigation Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, CA.

March 2006. Different Juries, Different Verdicts. Long Beach Bar Association, Long Beach, CA.

November 2005. Crisis Management in High Profile Litigation, Program Moderator. ABA Section of Litigation, Products Liability Committee, Women in Products Liability Annual Conference, New York, NY.

October 2005. Jury Consultants/Mock Juries: How to Run a Focus Group from High Budget to Low Profile. ABA Tort & Insurance Practice Section, Leadership Conference, San Francisco, CA.

September, 2005. Creating Headlines: Automakers in the News. ABA Section of Litigation Products Liability Committee, Automotive Regional Workshop at Nissan, Torrance, CA.

September 2005. Demeanor, Deception & Credibility. International Right of Way Association, Santa Ana, CA.

May 2005. Persuading the 21st Century Jury. Arizona State Bar Meeting, Phoenix, AZ.

May 2005. How is Public Perception of the Legal System Impacted by Media Coverage? Views from the Bench, the Bar, and the Media. ABA Section of Litigation Task Force on the Image of the Profession. USC Annenberg School for Communication, Los Angeles, CA.

April 2005. Mock Juries: A How-to-Guide for Trial Preparation. Association of Business Trial Lawyers, Los Angeles, CA.

October 2004. Playing the Race Card in Jury Trials. ABA Litigation Section Fall Leadership Meeting. Plenary Session. Kohler, WI.

May 2004. Law Day 2004 - Fulfilling the Promise: Brown v. Board at 50. Manhattan Beach Chamber of Commerce, Law Day 2004 Special Events Chair and Public Forum Panel Moderator. Manhattan Beach, CA.

March 2003. New Developments in Jury Verdicts in Product Liability Litigation: Are Jurors Changing America? ABA Litigation Section, Products Liability Committee. Ft. Lauderdale, FL.

October 2002. Juror Characteristics Associated with Punitive Damages. ABA Litigation Section, Products Liability Issues in the Automotive Industry. Detroit, MI.

August 2002. Something New Under the Sun: Innovations in Civil Jury Trials. ABA Litigation Section, ABA Annual Meeting. Chicago, IL.

December 2001. Women in the Courtroom: Perceptions of Women as Trial Lawyers. ABA Litigation Section, Products Liability Committee, Women in Products Liability Regional Meeting. Chicago, IL.

March 2001. Honing Your Communication Skills. ABA Litigation Section, Products Liability Committee Annual Meeting. New Orleans, LA.

February 2001. Jury Selection. Benjamin Aranda Inn of Court, Torrance, CA.

February 2001. Jury Selection: The Trial Consultants and the Trial Lawyers. Association of Southern California Defense Counsel's 40th Annual Seminar. Century City, CA.

October 2000. Is it Racial Profiling? Community Values on Policing and What is Acceptable. Law and Leadership Program for Leadership Manhattan Beach. Airport Courthouse, Los Angeles, CA.

April 2000. Jury Selection: Pride, Prejudice, Stereotyping and Ethnicity. Panel for the Los Angeles County Bar Association's Trial Practice Inn of Court, Los Angeles, CA.

April 2000. What Jury Consultants Do. Annenberg School of Communication, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

January 2000. Effective Defense Voir Dire: The Jury Consultant's Perspective. Presentation for the Defense Research Institute's Products Liability Committee Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, NV.

January 2000. Jury Issues in E-Commerce and Internet Related Litigation. Electronic Commerce and Internet Law & Practice: 3rd Annual Recent Developments Program. Continuing Education of the Bar, State of California and the State Bar Business Law Section. Anaheim, Beverly Hills, Sacramento, San Diego, San Francisco and Sunnyvale, CA.

March 1999. Will Your Liability and Damages Themes Appeal to the Jury You Have Selected? Presentation for the Defense Research Institute's Seminar - Damages: The Trial Consultant Supershow, Las Vegas, NV.

March 1999. The Presentation of Your Witnesses and Their Effect on Damages: A Trial Consultant Looks at Demeanor, Deception and Credibility. Presentation for the Defense Research Institute's Seminar - Damages: The Trial Consultant Supershow, Las Vegas, NV.

October 1998. Gender Issues in the Courtroom. Panel for the Defense Research Institute Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

April 1998. Daubert in a Non-Daubert State: Bench and Bar Look at Expert Testimony in New York Supreme Court. The Association of the Bar of the City of New York, New York, NY.

March 1998. Mealey's Toxic Torts: New Exposures 1998, Trial Issues Panel. West Palm Beach, FL.

January 1998. "What Makes Jurors Tick?": CBS Reports. Panel for the Tennessee Bar Association Meeting, Nashville, TN.

November 1997. Forum on the Future of the Jury. Keynote panel for the Defense Research Institute Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD.

August 1997. Creating Persuasive Themes for Juries. Presentation for ABA Litigation Section Construction Committee, ABA Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

July 1997. Using Jury Science to Win Cases. Moderator for three week seminar on Counsel Connect.

February 1997. Sink or Swim? Effective Use of Jury Consultants in High Risk Litigation. Plenary session moderator for the ABA Litigation Section Committee on Corporate Counsel Mid-Winter Meeting, Orlando, FL.

February 1992 - January 1997. Demeanor, Deception, and Credibility. Jury Selection - Beyond Intuition. MCLE seminars for various law firms.

October 1996 - February 1997. Commentator regarding jurors in the Goldman, et al. v. O.J. Simpson civil case. KCAL News, E!, CBS This Morning, CBS Evening News, CNN Early Edition, MSNBC.

March 1996. Confident Closing Arguments. Workshop for the Defense Research Institute. Third Annual Women Defense Attorneys Seminar. San Diego, CA.

November 1995. Jury Nullification: How to Recognize It, Get Around It, or Use it to Your Advantage. Joseph A. Ball/Clarence S. Hunt Inn of Court, Long Beach, CA.

October 1995. Jury Selection in High Technology Cases. Presentation for Winning Litigation Strategies in Computer Software and Semiconductor Chip Infringement Cases. Sponsored by ACI and the ABA, Section of Litigation Computer Litigation Committee, San Francisco, CA.

September 1994 - October 1995. Commentator for the O.J. Simpson case. CNN (NewsDay, WorldNews, CNN & Company, PrimeNews, CNN Saturday Morning). KCAL News. E! on O.J. Entertainment Tonight. KTVU (San Francisco, Mornings on 2). Fox News. KFI. KNX. BBC.

August 1995. Sexual Harassment: The Jury Trial. Panel presentation for the American Bar Association, Litigation Section, Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL.

October 1994. Model Curriculum for the New Millenium: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about Teaching New Lawyers How to Do Something Useful without Infuriating the Client. Panel presentation for the American Bar Association, Litigation Section, Annual Fall Meeting, Cleveland, OH.

February 1994. Making More Effective Jury Arguments in Punitive Damages Cases. Panel presentation for the American Bar Association, Litigation Section, Products Liability Committee, Midyear Meeting, Orlando, FL.

August 1993. The Genie in a Bottle -- Preparation is the Key to Getting What You Wish For! Presentation for the American Bar Association, Tort and Insurance Practice Session, ABA Annual Meeting, New York, NY.

April 1993. Commentator for Understanding Jurors in the Rodney King case. Channel 9, KCAL News, Los Angeles, CA.

February 1993. Presenting Scientific Evidence and Confronting Junk Science in the Courtroom. Presentation for the American Bar Association Litigation Section's Products Liability Committee, Midyear Meeting, San Diego, CA.

August 1992. Determining What a Jury May Think of Your Case. Presentation for the American Bar Association, Antitrust Section, ABA Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

May 1992. Jury Appeal: How to Select and Persuade a Jury. Presentation for the Westwood Bar Association, Los Angeles, CA.

April 1992. Demeanor, Deception, & Credibility. Presentation for the Wilshire Bar Association, Los Angeles, CA.

November 1991. Demeanor, Deception, & Credibility. Presentation for the Orange County Bar Association, Business Litigation Section, Orange, CA.

June 1991. The Medical Expert Witness. Program Coordinator for the Medi/Legal Institute. San Francisco, CA. (Also Newport Beach, CA, December 1990 & San Francisco, June 1990.)

May 1991. Hot Spots for Liars: Courtroom Perceptions during Voir Dire, Opening Statements, and Testimony. Seminar for Saint Albans Psychiatric Institute, Roanoke, VA.

April 1991. Managing Modern Litigation. Demonstration and Discussion of the Use of Psychologists in Jury Trials. Presentation for the American Bar Association Tort and Insurance Practice Section, TIPS Annual Spring Meeting, San Antonio, TX.

August 1990. Age Discrimination and Selecting the Jury. Presentation for the Employer-Employee Relations Committee of the American Bar Association Tort and Insurance Practice Section, ABA Annual Meeting, Chicago, IL.

September 1989. Communication Skills for Expert Witnesses. Presentation for the Litigation Services Committee of the California State Society of CPAs. Los Angeles, CA.

March 1989. Effective Utilization of Expert Witnesses. Program Coordinator for Medi/Legal Institute. Palm Springs, CA. (Also San Francisco, July 1989.)

April 1989. Expert Witnesses: Strategy and Tactics. Panel member for the Litigation Section of The State Bar of California. San Diego, CA.

April 1989. Keys to Avoiding the Juror Perception Trap. Building a Case Theme Using Expert Witnesses. Presentation for the The State Bar of California Litigation Section. San Diego, CA.

1986-1988. Psychological Perceptions of Witnesses' Communication Behavior. Presentation at various law firms and bar associations. Austin, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, and Oklahoma City.

November 1985. What Worked and What Did Not: Using Small Group Feedback Sessions after Training. Presentation for the American Society for Training and Development, Los Angeles, CA.

March 1984. Reducing Uncertainty in Instructional Messages: Helping Employees Understand the Task Demands. Presentation for the American Society for Training and Development, Long Beach, CA.

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Teaching Experience

ADJUNCT RESEARCH FACULTY (1990-1994), California School of Professional Psychology, Los Angeles. Gender Differences in Credibility of Expert Witnesses.

INSTRUCTOR (1984-85), UCLA Extension. Courses: The Art of Oral Communication, Research Design and Data Analysis in the Social Sciences, and Communicating in the Workplace.

ADJUNCT FACULTY (1985), California School of Professional Psychology. Courses: Principles of Research Design, and Tests and Measurement.

ASSOCIATE INSTRUCTOR (1981-83), USC, Educational Psychology Department. Courses: Learning, Instructional Models, Research Seminar in Instructional Psychology, Communication and Education, Computers in Educational Research, and Television and Media Effects.

TEACHING ASSISTANT (1976-77), UCLA, Psychology Department. Courses: Introductory Psychology and Psychology of Sex Differences.

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Research Experience

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR (1986-present). Verdict Success. Jury simulation studies emphasizing case strategy research and juror comprehension.

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE (1985-86). Litigation Sciences. Responsible for developing witness and communication programs.

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE (1985), USC School of Medicine. Research in medical education. Planning committee for the 1985 Generalists in Medical Education Conference, Washington, D.C.

STATISTICAL CONSULTANT (1982-1985). USC. Research design and statistical consultant to doctoral students in the social sciences.

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE (1974-82), UCLA Psychology Department. Designed interpersonal communication training program, researched target populations for self help groups, facilitated training groups, supervised undergraduates in a research practicum, and grant writing.

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE (1980), UCLA Neuro-Psychiatric Institute. Analysis of traditional and alternative family lifestyle effects upon children.

RESEARCH ASSOCIATE (1979-80), USC Educational Psychology Department. Data analysis on a longitudinal study of a Danish cohort. Investigations included clinical outcome of birth effects on later development.

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Publications

Cohen, C.R. (2013). The Billion Dollar Question: Bias or Misconduct? ABA Section of Litigation, Trial Practice, 27 (2).

Cohen, C.R. (2010). Forget what you Fear about Shadow Juries. Go Virtual! ABA Section of Litigation, Products Regional Meeting.

Cohen, C.R. (2010). The Heart and Soul of Your Case: Secrets to Crafting Winning Themes. ABA Annual Meeting, San Francisco.

Cohen, C.R. (2009). Response to Sex and Race in the Courtroom: Shifting Gender-Role Attitudes in a Changing World. The Jury Expert, Vol. 21 (6).

Cohen, C.R. (2009). Media Effects from Television Shows - Reality or Myth? Lawyers in Your Living Room, ABA Press.

Cohen, C.R. (2009). Determining Juror Perceptions that Affect Verdicts in Product Liability Cases. Chapter in Current Law, Strategies and Best Practices in Product Litigation, Practising Law Institute.

Cohen, C.R. (2007). Calming Fears in the Chemical Products Liability Trial. ABA Section of Litigation.

Cohen, C.R. (2007). Different Venues, Different Verdicts. ABA Section of Litigation.

Cohen, C.R. (2006). Determining Juror Perceptions of the FDA that Affect Verdicts in Pharmaceutical Lawsuits. ABA Section of Litigation.

Cohen, C.R. (2006). Test-Driving Trial Strategy: Crossing the Finish Line First. ABA Annual Meeting, Section of Litigation. Honolulu, HI.

Cohen, C.R. (2006). Communication Skills in Revealing Bias: The Plaintiff Juror and How to Exclude for Cause. Trials and Tribulations, the Winter Newsletter of the DRI Trial Tactics Committee.

Cohen, C.R., (2002). Asking the Right Questions: Current Events Shadowing the Jury Pool. Raleigh, NC: Trial Briefs, North Carolina Academy of Trial Lawyers, August.

Cohen, C.R., (2001). Effective Defense Voir Dire: Making Sense of Jurors' Experiences. Chicago, IL: International Association of Defense Counsel, Defense Counsel Journal, 68 (3).

Cohen, C.R., (2000). Getting What You Want from Jury Research. Southern California Directory of Experts & Consultants. Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles County Bar Association.

Munsterman, G.T., Hannaford, P.I., & Whitehead, G.M., editors, (1997). Jury Trial Innovations. ABA and National Center for State Courts. (Contributor to the ABA Task Force on Jury Initiatives.)

Cohen, C.R., (1992). Evaluating Jury Research, chapter in Managing Modern Litigation. Chicago, IL: American Bar Association.

Cohen, C.R., (1992). Understanding Jury Research, ALI-ABA's The Practical Litigator, 3 (1).

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Paper Presentations

Cohen, C.R., (1985). Communication Skills in Completing Tasks with Ambiguous Instructions. Presentation at the American Psychological Association Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, August.

Cohen, C.R., & Clark, R. E., (1985). Task Demands for Communication Skills in Ambiguous Instructional Messages. Presentation at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, March.

Cohen, C.R., (1982). Ambiguity Detection and Questioning Skills: Two Instructional Strategies. Presentation at the American Psychological Association Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., August.

Benson, J., Hocevar, D., & Cohen, C.R., (1982). Effects of Item Phrasing on the Factorial Invariance of Attitude Measures. Presentation at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, New York, March.

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Community Involvement

City of Manhattan Beach, Construction Issues Committee (2003-2005)

Manhattan Beach Chamber of Commerce

— Chair of the Board (2003-2004)

— Executive Committee (2001-2005)

Leadership Manhattan Beach, Project Manager (1999-2000)

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